From an historical point of view, the Neolithic transition constitutes a fundamental period during which people changed their relationship with the environment, establishing – in diverse ways – an economy based on stock-keeping and agriculture. In archaeology, the approaches to the study of this ‘Neolithisation’ process are extremely varied, since what changed was the entire range of elements making up the human-environment system. For Europe, the study of Neolithisation has focused on the vectors of this change (i.e. cultural diffusion via the indigenous hunter-gatherer societies vs. demic diffusion by the migration of a population from the Near East, where most of the animal an d plant species in question had been domesticated). Equally, the study of Neolithisation in Europe involves examining the rhythms of emergence of novel techno-economic traits (considering the greater or lesser favourability of the natural and cultural milieux within which such novelties appeared).